Annual Data 2013
Information relating to notifications of infectious diseases for 2013 are summarised
as key points with more detailed tables
and charts below. These tables and charts contain 2013 and previous years data for notifications of infectious disease.
These analyses are for confirmed notifications to the year ended 31 December 2013.
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) became notifiable as of January 2010 under the Public Health etc (Scotland) Act 2008, and therefore there are limited historical data. There were no Hib notifications in 2013, the same as in 2012; there had been three such notifications in 2010 and six in 2011. An enhanced surveillance scheme based on laboratory reports has been in place since the introduction of the Hib vaccine in 1992. In 2013 there was one laboratory confirmed case of Haemophilus influenzae type b, there had been two laboratory confirmed cases in 2012.
In 2013, there were 180 clinical notifications of measles to HPS. This compares with 99 notifications for 2012. The reason for this increase was likely bi-factorial. There were a number of measles clusters and sporadic laboratory-confirmed cases in Scotland in the first half of 2014 and general practitioner awareness of these and the large outbreaks in England and Wales heightened clinical suspicion.
There were 83 cases of meningococcal infection notified in 2013, compared to 89 in 2012 and 103 in 2011. The overall trend has been a decline since the introduction of the Meningococcal C (Men C) vaccine in 1999, when 329 cases were notified. More than half the cases notified in 2013 (55.1%, 49 cases) were in children aged under 15 years.
In 2013, there were 503 clinical notifications of mumps to HPS. This compares with 920 notifications for 2012. Since 2004, there has been an ongoing widespread outbreak of mumps which has affected all areas of the UK. Although case numbers have decreased overall since the peak in 2005, mumps cases continue to occur steadily in Scotland. This outbreak is mainly affecting the young adult age group (aged 15-24 years), who are often under-immunised against mumps as they have not routinely been offered two doses of MMR vaccine.
There were 1134 notifications of pertussis in 2013, a decrease compared to the 2068 notifications in 2012. Despite this decline, the number of notifications is above recent historical levels of between 45 and 134 notifications a year (2000 and 2011). In 2013, 199 (17.5%) of the notifications were from children aged under 15 years. Since 2012 Scotland, like the rest of the UK, has experienced an outbreak of pertussis (whooping cough). In October 2012, an immunisation programme for pregnant women was introduced to protect infants prior to routine immunisations, the group at highest risk of severe disease and complications.
In 2013, there were 22 clinical notifications of rubella to HPS. This compares with 43 notifications for 2012. Rubella cases are under scrutiny in Europe, as rubella is targeted for elimination by WHO.
There were 391 notifications in 2013. This was a decrease of 6.0% (25 cases) compared to 2012 when 416 cases were notified.
Of the notified cases in 2013, 226 were respiratory cases, the same as in 2012, and 165 were non-respiratory a decline compared to 190 in 2012.
The decrease in notifications is also mirrored by Enhanced Surveillance of Mycobacterial infections (ESMI). The ESMI scheme provisionally reported 393 cases in 2013 compared to 406 in 2012, this was the third consecutive decrease in numbers reported to ESMI and follows a steady raise in cases 2005-2010.
During 2013 there were eight notifications of typhoid and none of paratyphoid, compared to two and zero notifications respectively in 2012. We have no detail on travel history of these cases. HPS is confident that we would have been informed had infection been acquired indigenously. Infection abroad is usually the result of the ingestion of heavily contaminated food or water. Typhoid vaccine does not confer 100% protection and does not protect against paratyphoid infection therefore all travellers should be encouraged to exercise food and water precautions to prevent all types of enteric fever.
Tables and Charts for 2013